Trump, Charlottesville, Chemnitz and the struggle

Anti-fascists confront racist march in Chemnitz, Germany, Sept. 1.

Sept. 1 — To many progressives among the population, Donald Trump appears to be on the ropes. They are waiting for the establishment to take him down. There is great anticipation that the Democratic Party will make electoral gains and get the chance to further discredit him.

There is the mounting public evidence of Trump’s  corruption. Many in his inner circle have pleaded guilty or been convicted of lying, money laundering, tax and/or bank fraud. There is his growing anxious rage expressed in his tweets against the Mueller investigation. There is also his isolation from ruling-class society as illustrated by his exclusion from the week-long and highly publicized, super-patriotic, militaristic funeral ceremonies for John McCain.

But the fascist march in Charlottesville, Va., in August 2017 and the recent fascist anti-im/migrant riot in Chemnitz, Germany, show how illusory this view is that the defeat of Trump will solve the problem of racist reaction.

No one knows at this point how the struggle between Trump and his allies, on the one hand, and the anti-Trump forces in the ruling class on the other, will turn out. But it would be fatal for progressives and revolutionaries to rely on the reactionary ruling class to defeat Trump.

Moreover, while the political defeat of Trump is important, it will not be fundamental because it will not deal with the racist, misogynist, xenophobic, national chauvinist forces that Trump has conjured up and consolidated into a reactionary base. This base is not going to go away, whatever happens to Trump. The workers and the oppressed will still have to deal with this reactionary mass.  What will be needed in the future is to defeat Trumpism, not just at the polls but on the ground.

Charlottesville — fascism shows its face

The world got a glimpse of the forces emerging around Trump at Charlottesville last year when the Klan and the Nazis united with other fascist forces in the “Unite the Right” armed torchlight parade through the University of Virginia campus in defense of a statue of Robert E. Lee, commanding general of the slavocracy during the Civil War.

One anti-fascist demonstrator was killed, a Black man was brutally beaten and many were injured as the police watched passively. Trump refused to denounce the fascists and finally said that there were good people “on both sides.”

Fortunately, the movement recovered from this assault and forced the removal of Confederate statues in many cities, from Louisiana to Texas. The Unite the Right forces received an important blow when the movement toppled a Confederate statue in Durham, N.C.

Because of the militant resistance, the “Unite the Right 2” rally in Washington, D.C.  on the one-year anniversary of Charlottesville this Aug. 10 fell flat.

Pro-Confederate forces in high places

However, the degree to which the racist, pro-Confederate forces in the ruling class are dug in was shown by the reaction of the University of North Carolina administration to the recent pulling down of a Confederate statue in Chapel Hill, N.C.

The statue of a Confederate soldier was pulled down by students after their campaign to have the authorities remove it went nowhere. After it was pulled down, the university and the board of governors decided it should be relocated on campus. Meanwhile, arrest warrants were issued for student demonstrators.

This incident illustrates how deeply embedded pro-Confederate sympathy is in the ruling class 150 years after the Civil War. Chapel Hill is supposed to be a liberal institution. States all over the South and elsewhere have passed laws forbidding the removal of a statue without the express consent of the state historical society, regardless of the sentiment of African Americans or progressive anti-racist sectors of the population. Liberal Ivy League colleges and universities in the North have refused to budge on this matter as well.

Racism and the face of fascism in the U.S.

The origin of this underlying racism which penetrates U.S. capitalist society goes back to the betrayal of the enslaved people after the Civil War by the victorious capitalist class of the North.

The Northern armies occupied the Southern slave states. There was a period of Reconstruction from 1865 to 1877. Voting rights were granted for formerly enslaved peoples. Many African Americans were elected to various state and local offices. During the brief period of Reconstruction, a Freedmen’s Bureau was created and land ownership rights and other rights for African Americans, such as the right to sue, to serve on a jury, etc., were enforced by the U.S. military occupation forces.

This period of Reconstruction was ended abruptly in 1877 with the withdrawal of U.S. forces after the Hayes-Tilden Compromise, in which Rutherford B. Hayes was given the presidency in return for troop withdrawal from the South.

The political dominance of the South by the former slavocracy was restored. The formerly enslaved were resubjugated and pressed into a form of feudalism or land slavery called sharecropping. Lynching ran riot. Rigid racist segregation was enforced. The landowners once again ran the South and did so for 100 years.

There was no attempt by the Northern capitalist class to purge the South of racism and racist officials. There was no reeducation campaign among the white population. No resources were devoted to the anti-racist transformation of the South. The capitalists of the North were quite content to build railroads and shipping lines and to create banks to profit from the land slavery of African Americans. Racism was not only enforced in the South with Ku Klux Klan violence and lynchings, Black Codes, Jim Crow segregation, poll taxes, etc., but it also prevailed in the North.

Chemnitz, fall of Berlin Wall, and end of denazification

Fascists, right wingers, and anti-immigrant racists of all sorts have been mobilized in this country by Donald Trump. He has fomented his anti-immigrant racism on a world stage. This anti-immigrant, right-wing trend has been reflected in Europe among fascist and pro-fascist forces as well. Indeed, Trump sounds much like the European right.

On Aug. 28, the world was treated to the ugly spectacle of a mob of thousands of Nazis and anti-immigrant sympathizers arriving from all over Germany and taking over the streets of the German city of Chemnitz and hunting down immigrants “like wolves,” as the New York Times put it on Aug. 31.

The mob formed after the capitalist press triggered the event with the headline “35-Year-Old Dies after Stabbing in the City.” The rumors were that the man who was stabbed was protecting a woman from sexual assault by immigrants. Even the police had to eventually declare that rumor false.

The following evening a reported 8,000 racists occupied the center of the city and hunted down anyone they suspected of being an immigrant. There were Nazi salutes with “Sieg Heils,” which are outlawed in Germany, and chants of “We’ll get you all.”

The German bourgeois publication Der Spiegel reported that “The police in Saxony likewise hit the headlines with predictable regularity when they, for example, prevent journalists from doing their jobs or fail to mobilize enough officers, thus forcing them to stand by passively as right-wing extremists rampage through the streets.” (Der Spiegel, Aug. 31)

Chemnitz was formerly called Karl-Marx-Stadt during the period of the German Democratic Republic, before the Berlin Wall came down in 1989 and capitalism was restored as West Germany annexed the East in 1990. It is the third-largest city in the southeastern state of Saxony with a population of 250,000.

Denazification in socialist East Germany

After the Red Army occupied eastern Germany in 1945, the Communist Party was merged with the Social Democratic Party to become the Socialist Unity Party. In 1949 the GDR was established following the establishment of West Germany. The new government undertook a vigorous program of denazification, unlike what occurred in capitalist West Germany, or the Federal Republic.

In the capitalist West, high Nazi officials retained their pensions and got official jobs. “A total of 25 cabinet ministers, one president and one chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany — as postwar Germany is officially known — had been members of Nazi organizations.” (Der Spiegel, March 6, 2012) This list was finally forced into the public by the Left Party.

The GDR, under socialist leadership, took an entirely opposite approach. It was undoubtedly very difficult to construct a state and a society with a population that had lived under Hitler for 12 years. Nevertheless, the attempt was made.

For example, Bruno Bruni de la Motte, no socialist himself, wrote in the London Guardian on March 8, 2007: “I was born and grew up in the German Democratic Republic. Our school books dealt extensively with the Nazi period and what it did to the German nation and most of Europe.

“During the course of their schooling, all pupils were taken at least once to a concentration camp, where a former inmate would explain in graphic detail what took place. All concentration camps in the former GDR were maintained as commemorative places, ‘so that no one should forget.’ The government itself included a good proportion of those, including Jews, who had been forced to flee Hitler fascism or who had been interned.

“In the East, thousands of new teachers had to be found overnight, as those tainted by the Nazi ideology were not suitable to teach a new postwar generation, and this resulted in schools having under-trained and inadequate teaching staff for some years; all lawyers were replaced, too….”

Nazism revived by capitalist Germany

De la Motte continued, “In [capitalist] West Germany thousands of leading Nazi army officers, judges who had sent Jews and leftists to their deaths, doctors who’d experimented on concentration camp victims, politicians and others, were left unscathed and continued in their professions.”

The fall of the Berlin Wall and the return to capitalism brought a quick shift. From the very outset there were demonstrations against immigrants. Naziism and right-wing politics resurfaced in the form of anti-immigrant racism and xenophobia.

It is no surprise that 29 years after the restoration of capitalist exploitation and with the creeping world economic crisis hitting Germany, including the youth and the petty bourgeoisie, the neo-fascist movement should take on the tone of a racist, anti-immigrant crusade.

In the U.S, even more than in Europe, racism in one form or another has always been the cutting edge of fascism and the face of political reaction.

Capitalist class never tried to root out racism

It is no accident that the KKK and Nazis rallied around Barry Goldwater in his run for president in 1964. It is no accident that Richard Nixon started his presidential campaign in 1972 with a racist “Southern strategy” to bring Southern Democrats into the Republican Party in the wake of the Civil Rights movement.

It should also be noted that in 1982 Ronald Reagan began his presidential campaign in Philadelphia, Miss., with Confederate flags flying — in a city where three civil rights workers had been murdered in 1964 by the Klan during the voting rights campaign in the South. And Bill Clinton, besides passing racist legislation on mass incarceration, the death penalty and “terrorism,” during his election campaign showed his racism by going back to his state of Arkansas to witness the execution of a mentally disabled Black man.

Fascism at the border

Right now ICE and the Border Patrol are carrying out fascist measures against immigrants by deliberately separating families, as well as rounding up workers everywhere.

So the capitalist class has now had 150 years to root out racism and has not made any serious effort to do so. The capitalists have shown that they feel it is in their class interests to perpetuate racism.

They never instituted a thoroughgoing anti-racist educational campaign of making every student in school go to photo exhibits of lynchings to be narrated by families or neighbors of victims. Slave quarters were not preserved as exhibits for mandatory visits so no one would ever forget. And importantly, compensation was not paid to the victims of slavery nor were they given the lands of the plantation owners for whom they labored.

In short the capitalist ruling class has always preserved racism rather than destroy it, just as the German ruling class has never made a determined effort to root out Nazism.

The revolutionary forces in the U.S. must organize for struggle against the revived, concentrated racist base that has been fostered by Trump. The progressives, revolutionaries and advanced workers must also be prepared for struggle after Trump, because anti-immigrant and anti-Black racism is a lethal weapon the bosses keep in reserve for times of crisis.

Trump bajo fuego: el dilema de la clase dominante

Donald Trump ha sufrido una serie de golpes por las fuerzas anti Trump en la clase dominante y el establecimiento legal. Esto sin duda ha alentado a las fuerzas progresistas y revolucionarias que legítimamente quieren ver a este Trump reaccionario, autoritario, racista y misógino caer.

Los eventos recientes han golpeado a Trump. Su gerente de campaña, Paul Manafort, fue condenado en el juicio por ocho cargos criminales de fraude y evasión fiscal. Su abogado de muchos años y “reparador”, Michael Cohen, se declaró culpable y apuntó con el dedo a Trump por violaciones de la ley de campaña. Estos acontecimientos llegaron el mismo día.

Al día siguiente se reveló que el presidente ejecutivo del National Enquirer, David Pecker, que operaba una hoja de escándalo pro Trump, había recibido inmunidad para hablar sobre cómo trabajó con Michael Cohen para suprimir historias críticas sobre Trump comprandolas y luego no publicarlos.

Veinticuatro horas después se reveló que el CFO de la Organización Trump, Allen Weisselberg, también recibió inmunidad para testificar. Weisselberg ha estado a cargo de las finanzas de la Organización Trump desde los días del padre racista y pro nazi de Trump, Fred Trump.

Wall Street y Pentágono trazan línea sobre Rusia y RPDC

Poco después, el Secretario de Estado Mike Pompeo fue obligado a suspender su viaje a la República Popular Democrática de Corea con una semana de aviso. Pompeo ya había elegido al jefe de Ford Motors para dirigir la delegación. La semana pasada notamos que el desfile militar de Trump fue cancelado y que el Pentágono y la clase dominante se resistían a su intento de realinear la política exterior imperialista de Estados Unidos hacia Rusia, que la clase dominante ha bloqueado. (“Revuelta de los espías”, WW, 23 de agosto)

El último movimiento para cancelar el viaje de Pompeo a la RPDC es la respuesta de la clase dominante al intento de Trump de realinear la política exterior de EUA en la península de Corea. Finalmente, firmando un tratado de paz con la RPDC – para una guerra que terminó en un punto muerto hace 65 años – es una condición para seguir adelante. Todo el establishment militar y político se opone a esto y finalmente gana, incluso cuando Trump estaba siendo debilitado en los tribunales.

La clase dominante ha establecido la línea en lo esencial. Pueden vivir con las atrocidades fascistas de Trump en las fronteras, separando familias inmigrantes. Pueden hacer caso omiso de su apoyo a la brutalidad policial y el asesinato en las comunidades afroamericana y latina. Pueden vivir con sus insultos racistas contra África y Haití.

Pero cuando se trata de lo básico, la agresión hacia Rusia y la apertura de relaciones pacíficas en Corea, Wall Street y el Pentágono trazan una línea cerrada.

Los jefes rechazan la destitución por ahora

Debe notarse que estos acontecimientos han sido acompañados por un esfuerzo concertado para enterrar cualquier movimiento incipiente para la destitución, que ha sido acelerado por los reveses legales de Trump.

Este esfuerzo para anular cualquier conversación sobre el juicio político proviene tanto del liderazgo del Partido Demócrata como de los republicanos por igual. Una larga historia en el New York Times cuenta cómo la jerarquía del Partido Demócrata está tratando de apagar los incendios de destitución entre los demócratas de base. La línea del partido es proteger la investigación de Mueller y dejar que se desarrolle. (25 de agosto)

En este momento, la clase dominante es cautelosa de avivar un movimiento de destitución. Hay al menos dos razones. En primer lugar, están sacando toneladas de dinero por los beneficios de los recortes tributarios y la desregulación por Trump. El recorte total de un billón de dólares reduce directamente los gastos corporativos y va directamente al resultado final de la empresa. Las ganancias se dispararon durante dos trimestres. Ningún jefe o banquero quiere sacudir ese bote.

Segundo, tienen miedo de provocar una rebelión de derecha desde la base de Trump. Escuchan los mítines de Trump, que continúan tal como fueron durante la campaña, a pesar de todas las revelaciones sobre lo que es un racista de mala vida, misógino y fanático, Trump. La burguesía es siempre colaboradora, conciliadora o cobarde frente a la derecha, y esta es una lección que la clase trabajadora siempre debe recordar.

Todas las acusaciones, negociación de culpabilidad, inmunidades, exposiciones, etc., ascienden a esto: las fuerzas anti-Trump en la clase dominante están bailando con Trump. En este momento, la clase dominante está tratando de debilitarlo principalmente con ataques legales y publicitarios. Esto puede cambiar en circunstancias futuras como por ejemplo, si la guerra comercial con China se sale de control o algún otro acontecimiento catastrófico amenaza sus intereses capitalistas. Pero, en última instancia, esperan eliminarlo a través del proceso electoral de 2020.

El mejor escenario político para las fuerzas anti-Trump en la clase dominante es para que los demócratas ganen la mayoría en la Cámara de Representantes. Esto les dará el poder de convocar audiencias, traer testigos, citar testimonios y documentos, y librar una guerra de relaciones públicas contra Trump, mientras deja abierta la cuestión de la destitución.

En la actualidad, las masas enfrentan tres alternativas prácticas para eliminar a Trump: acusación, juicio político o elecciones. Las tres son soluciones de la clase dominante en arenas dominadas por el capital. La izquierda radical y revolucionaria definitivamente crecían, incluso antes de que Trump entrara. Pero dada la relación actual de las fuerzas políticas, y dada la relativa debilidad numérica de los revolucionarios y radicales izquierdistas, estas soluciones de la clase dominante son las únicas vías para eliminar realmente a Trump en este momento.

Formas de luchar contra Trump y el Trumpismo

Sin embargo, hay muchas formas de luchar contra Trump y Trumpismo sobre el terreno, como derrocar símbolos racistas, luchar para abolir el Servicio de Inmigración y Aduanas, sitiar los centros de detención de inmigrantes, apoyar la actual huelga de prisioneros, luchar contra la brutalidad policial, defensa de los derechos de las tierras nativas, exigiendo el derecho de las mujeres a la justicia reproductiva y los derechos LGBTQ, manifestaciones en contra de la guerra, etc. Todas estas son luchas justas que pueden estar directamente relacionadas con la lucha contra Trump. Pueden y deben emprenderse.

La propaganda y la agitación contra la reacción de Trump son otras vías importantes para ser usadas, especialmente a medida que las elecciones burguesas se acercan. Este es un momento en que las masas están abiertas a escuchar a la política. La izquierda real, la izquierda anticapitalista revolucionaria, puede no ser decisiva en la arena electoral, dada la actual relación de fuerzas. Algunos socialdemócratas, sin embargo, se postulan como candidatos del Partido Demócrata.

Es posible que el papel de la izquierda se lleve a cabo mejor mediante una campaña de manifestaciones y propaganda. En algunos estados, o concursos locales más probables, las fuerzas revolucionarias pueden participar en las elecciones sobre una base revolucionaria con fines de propaganda, así como para obtener representación.

La propaganda y la agitación durante la campaña actual deben elaborarse con sensibilidad. Deben tener en cuenta los sentimientos anti Trump de los indocumentados que han sufrido medidas fascistas en las fronteras, incluida la separación de las familias de sus hijos. Estas medidas fascistas no se limitan a las fronteras, sino que las lleva a cabo ICE en comunidades de inmigrantes y en lugares de trabajo en todo el país.

Esta propaganda debe tener en cuenta la ira en las ciudades y comunidades negras de todo el país contra la policía y el apoyo abierto de Trump para la brutalidad policial y el racismo confederado.

Debe reconocer que hay cerca de un millón de destinatarios de DACA (acción diferida para las llegadas de niños) que tienen la amenaza de la deportación colgando sobre sus cabezas. Además, cientos de miles, incluyendo a haitianos, hondureños, salvadoreños, nicaragüenses y otros cuyo Estatus de Protección Temporal ha sido levantado, están esperando la deportación.

Teniendo esto en cuenta, se puede diseñar una propaganda anticapitalista y pro-socialista que no solo condena a Trump, sino que también muestra que la salvación no radica en el Partido Demócrata, un partido cuyo liderazgo está inextricablemente ligado a intereses corporativos y militares.

El socialismo gana popularidad

Hay mucha discusión y publicidad sobre la creciente popularidad del término “socialismo”. Desde la campaña de Bernie Sanders en el 2016, el término se ha vuelto respetable, particularmente a medida que el capitalismo decae y trae sufrimiento y gran desigualdad a las masas. El término “socialista” recibió un impulso adicional cuando Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, una activista puertorriqueña, una aliada de Sanders y miembro de los Socialistas Democráticos de América, ganó una primaria contra un entrometido miembro del Partido Demócrata, Joe Crowley, que estaba en línea a ser nombrado presidente de la Cámara después de Nancy Pelosi. Ocasio-Cortez representará un distrito que se extiende por el Bronx y Queens.

Mientras su victoria primaria ha inspirado un gran entusiasmo entre los progresistas, también ha creado ilusiones entre muchos jóvenes, especialmente de izquierda, que están en el camino hacia hacerse cargo del Partido Demócrata y presentar un programa para erradicar la desigualdad, ganar atención médica universal, viviendas asequibles, incluso la propiedad estatal de industrias, etc. Estas ilusiones deben ser tratadas con argumentos marxistas, y no deben desdeñarse despectivamente. Por ejemplo, el presidente más progresista del siglo 20, Franklin Roosevelt, sofocó el movimiento independentista en Puerto Rico en la masacre de Ponce de 1934. Roosevelt llevó al imperialismo estadounidense a la Segunda Guerra Mundial, no inicialmente contra los nazis sino contra el imperialismo japonés, y justificó el internamiento de japoneses en los Estados Unidos.

Mientras que Roosevelt es bien recordado ahora por el New Deal, que concedió algunos derechos a la clase trabajadora empobrecida en ese momento, en preparación para la guerra, Roosevelt rompió una huelga por los trabajadores la naves aéreas en la costa oeste, hizo alianzas con Dixiecrats del sur, permitió que la segregación permaneciera en su lugar, incluso en el ejército, etc. ¡Y este fue el presidente más progresista del Partido Demócrata! Se enfureció contra los “realistas económicos” pero cumplió sus órdenes en el Pacífico y más tarde en Europa. Antes de entrar en la Segunda Guerra Mundial, dijo: “Sus muchachos no serán enviados a guerras en el extranjero”, hasta que los intereses imperialistas de Estados Unidos sean desafiados.

Solo la lucha ganará

¿Cómo ganó la clase trabajadora las concesiones de la administración Roosevelt? El New Deal no fue un regalo otorgado desde arriba. Se ganó a partir de manifestaciones de los desempleados en las principales ciudades; marchas de hambre; huelgas generales municipales en San Francisco, Minneapolis y Toledo en 1936; las huelgas de brazos caídos en Akron y Cleveland, que culminaron en la huelga de brazos caídos de Flint ese mismo año, lo que condujo a la organización de United Auto Workers, el Congreso de Organizaciones Industriales y la organización masiva de la clase obrera industrial.

Esta fue la fuerza que condujo a la Administración de Progreso del Trabajo, la Seguridad Social, el seguro de desempleo, el derecho de huelga y de organizar sindicatos, y muchas otras ganancias asociadas con el New Deal.

Lo mismo es cierto para la Ley de Derechos Civiles, el Acta de Derechos de Voto y otras ventajas legislativas, incluida la decisión Roe v. Wade del Tribunal Supremo y las que confirman los derechos de lesbianas y homosexuales. Fueron ganados primero en las calles del sangriento Sur y luego por rebeliones masivas y marchas en las ciudades del norte.

Los socialistas que tratan de obtener ganancias al afianzarse en el sistema electoral y el Partido Demócrata necesitan saber que los grandes pasos hacia adelante han venido de la lucha de clases: la organización militante de los trabajadores y las rebeliones de las comunidades oprimidas.

A la larga, solo la lucha de masas puede traer progreso social, y solo la revolución puede traer el socialismo.

 

The lessons of Chicago, 1968

By Fred Goldstein posted on September 1, 2018.

This is the 50th anniversary of the massive street struggles in 1968 during the Democratic National Convention. We reprint here an article by Fred Goldstein from the Workers World of Sept. 13, 1968.

The violence openly inflicted on liberals and radicals alike at the Chicago Democratic Convention confirms that the U.S. ruling class is entering a new phase in which their reliance upon deception is to be increasingly abandoned in favor of the use of force. The use of violence against the white population (after centuries against the Black) is part of the preparations for stepped-up attacks on the oppressed people around the globe.

All attempts to place the responsibility on the insignificant hired thug of the bosses, [Chicago] Mayor Richard Daley, are calculated to mask this fundamental shift.

Thousands of U.S. troops, tanks, jeeps, and all the other necessities of combat cannot be shifted around the country at the cost of creating great political unrest (to say nothing of the expense) on the say-so of such a relatively low-ranking political stooge as Daley. Nor can National Guard troops be called upon by a mayor.

For that matter, the Chicago Police Department would never dare to “mar the image” of the entire Democratic Party unless it had received explicit orders from the party hierarchy to crack heads. The White House, the Pentagon, the Democratic National Committee and the entire capitalist establishment were all involved in the Chicago operation.

In short, Mayor Daley was working for the ruling class and not they for him, as the bourgeois news media imply when they either condemn or condone “Daley’s handling” of the fascist attack on anti-war protesters in Chicago.

(The U.S. Department of Justice announced on Sept. 3 that it had just allocated $3.9 million to the cities for so-called “riot-control.”)

Of course, the billionaires did not shift from fraud to force arbitrarily. It’s just that their bag of tricks is just about empty and their two war candidates are about equally discredited.

It is no coincidence that they started clubbing, gassing and breaking heads just at the moment when the “peace” campaign of Eugene McCarthy was about to come to an ignominious end. (The police attack on McCarthy headquarters was the final humiliation dealt the liberals and served to illustrate the fascist mood of the ruling class.)

The rulers who rigged the convention long in advance knew that McCarthy was to be discarded in Chicago. And they also knew that thousands of youth whom the McCarthy campaign had kept off the streets would be back on the streets, together with thousands of radical youth who had never fallen for the imperialist-liberal McCarthy in the first place.

So the bosses prepared well ahead of time to deal with the anger and indignation which was as inevitable as the Humphrey-Nixon race. They decided to give the white youth a taste of the treatment hitherto reserved for the Black liberation struggle.

But an important by-product of Chicago is the wave of revulsion of new layers of youth for a parliamentary system which has to defend its candidates from the hatred of the population with bayonets and clubs.

Parliamentary illusions went up with the clouds of tear gas as the war party at the amphitheater steam-rolled over popular anti-war sentiment. The flow of blood from the heads of unarmed demonstrators in front of the Conrad Hilton made many a convert to the revolutionary struggle.

The bourgeoisie used strong-arm methods to brush the liberals aside and thus demonstrated the fraudulence and the futility of imperialist democracy.

If the liberal politicians folded up at the first show of force by the ruling class, the militant youth did not.

While McCarthy crept off to the sidelines and McGovern stepped into Humphrey’s fold, the fighting young people who really want and need to end imperialist wars were spontaneously fighting back against the cops. New and militant tactics were being developed simultaneously with the beginnings of change in their ideology.

Several hundred police, who tried to attack a Grant Park rally after someone lowered the U.S. flag, were literally driven away by the youth in the crowd. The cops were hit with everything that could be thrown and then surrounded by barricades of benches and immobilized before they withdrew in defeat.

Mobile street demonstrations were carried out, during which obstacles were strewn about to slow down police cars. Youth at Lincoln Park built such sturdy barricades to keep from being driven from the park that police had to saturate the area with tear gas many times in order to drive them out.

Occasional aggressive forays were made by small bands of youth in search of isolated police on foot or in patrol cars. In general, however, the brutality of the police produced spontaneous retaliation wherever possible.

Many so-called leftists frown upon these new tactics as “adventuristic” and inadequate to defeat such a heavily armed force as the police. But those who are serious about leading a revolutionary struggle against imperialism must take a carefully constructive attitude towards the initial bursts of revolutionary energy shown by the young people in Chicago.

Opponents of imperialism will try to assist the militants to improve their tactics, not throw cold water on them.

In general, the Chicago events have shown that the capitalists will always resort to force if popular will stands in the way of their imperialist objectives.

These events have confirmed the Marxist analysis of the state. This resort to violence on the eve of new imperialist crises has pointed out to thousands of young people that revolutionary resistance to boss rule is the only way to stop wars of aggression.

These are the lessons of Chicago.